Topics are arranged alphabetically in the INDEX.

Friday, July 13, 2018

Jefferson the Philosopher

"Thomas Jefferson is a kind of incarnate compendium of the Enlightenment. His remarkable openness to its spirit is the philosophical counterpart to his political sensitivity in making himself “a passive auditor of the opinions of others,” so as to catch the “harmonizing sentiments of the day” and to incorporate them into a document that would be “an expression of the American mind,” the Declaration of Independence…"

Eva Brann

Was Thomas Jefferson a philosopher? If so, in what sense? I can imagine two opposing questions raised in rejoinder.

He was a statesman—why should we expect or require him to be a philosopher also?

He read and reasoned and wrote throughout his life—why should we hesitate to give him the title?

The first question presupposes that there are indeed two kinds of life, readily distinguishable and mutually exclusive: namely, Aristotle’s two lives of excellence—the one practical and political, and the other theoretical and philosophical (Politics 1324a, Nicomachean Ethics 1095b). The good pursued in the former, which is honor, depends on incurring the esteem of others; that of the latter, the pure and permanent pleasure of contemplation, is self-sufficient and leisurely.

Read it all here.

Wednesday, June 20, 2018

Heidegger and Aristotle

Martin Heidegger 1960

Here is an excellent paper that explores the relationship between Martin Heidegger and the thought of Aristotle. The writer points out that Heidegger's work with Aristotle had "a significant
impact on Aristotle scholarship in Germany in the early part of the twentieth century."

Related reading: The Challenge of Heidegger's Terms; George Pattison on Martin Heidegger; Heidegger's Lectures on Aristotle

Monday, June 4, 2018

Feminist Interpretations of David Hume

“What is best in this collection is that it focused attention on some of the often neglected aspects of Hume’s philosophy. Given that feminists are concerned with exposing and investigating what is overlooked, this uncovering may be what is most centrally feminist about the book. It also succeeds, as Jacobson urges in her introduction, in encouraging readers to ask more questions, to continue the discussion and to find new and creative ways of reading Hume.”—Miriam McCormick, Philosophy in Review

Anne Jaap Jacobson has edited this volume and Hume devotees should read it. Michelle Mason (University of Minnesota) wrote this review.

Related reading: Theories of Knowledge: Locke and Hume; Why You Have to Love David Hume; INDEX

Friday, February 23, 2018

Grounding Education in the Classical Approach

"I remember, years ago, being engaged in correspondence with a young man who was extremely enthusiastic about the psychology of the unconscious, and who insisted that the urge which issued in the writing of a story about a murder and the urge which issued in committing of a murder were one and the same, with no difference between them. I was writing murder-stories at the time and may have been prejudiced, but I objected that it did seem to me as though there must be a slight difference of some kind somewhere, since the results were so different. I added that society in general must be aware of the difference, since it rewarded the one result with royalties and the other with the gallows."--Dorothy L. Sayers (Introductory Papers on Dante, p. 4)

Alice C. Linsley

I have been fond of Dorothy Sayers’ writing for over twenty years. I appreciate the power of her literary fiction and consider Sayers’ Nine Tailors and Gaudy Night to be two of the most finely crafted mystery novels ever written in English. These reveal her exceptional eye for detail in storytelling, her remarkable vocabulary, her grasp of syntax, and her spiritual insights.

Sayers' facility with the English language rests on her exceptionally good classical training. She understood the ancient Greco-Roman world, the scholastic world, and was adept at Latin. Sayers draws on her extensive knowledge of medieval education to help us understand which tools are essential if students are to be life-long learners.

In her 1949 speech “The Lost Tools of Learning,” Sayers illustrates how modern intellectuals misrepresent scholastic education. She points to how one intellectual confuses location and extension, a mistake that a high school student who has learned the principles of Aristotelian logic would not make.

Sayers critiques the tendency to regard specialized talking heads as “authorities” on everything from morals to DNA. She opines that the greatest authorities on the failure of modern education are those who learned nothing. We can imagine chuckles coming from her audience and frowns on the faces of self-important Oxford academics.

Sayers is correct that we can’t “turn back the wheel” to the late Middle Ages when metaphysical exploration was regarded as an objective of education. However, the Trivium provides a pattern for “one coherent scheme of mental training.” This pattern can help restore the lost tools of learning. At each stage, the student develops and improves their skills at reasoning, speaking, reading and writing. These are the skills needed for life-long learning, and to be able to influence people as Christians.

Sayers lays the groundwork by asking her audience to consider some “disquieting thoughts” about the direction of English society in the mid-twentieth century. She identifies the following concerns:

Irresponsible prolongation of intellectual childhood to justify teaching less in more subjects

The Media’s confusion of fact and opinion, or the proven and the plausible.

Sophistry in public debate, rather than logical rhetoric.

Public policy makers addressing mostly irrelevant matters in committees.

Failure to define terms and intentional abuse of language, making words mean whatever one wants them to mean.

Adults who are unable to discern legitimate expertise from popular pulp, and who can’t use the library.

People so specialized that they can’t make connections between the disciplines.

Scientists who fail to adhere to the basic principles of Aristotelian logic, thus presenting speculation as facts.

Sayers’ critique of the society in which she lived is relevant today. In my 27 years of teaching I have watched the materialist worldview erode the ability of young people to think well, argue well, express themselves well, and to serve as apologists for the Christian faith.

The influence of John Dewey’s Pragmatism on American education has been disastrous. It has eviscerated the internal organs of sound teaching. Once metaphysics is excised from education, we are left with a mechanistic, materialistic, and blatantly false view of reality. Then we wonder why our students are not learning.

American students are unprepared to defend truth, and in this condition they are prey to panderers and false authorities. Modern education is proving to be a futile enterprise. The “intellectual capital” of past ages is entirely spent. What is needed is the classical methodology.

Sayers is spot on in suggesting that the time to tackle such argumentation is when students are at their most argumentative, that is, during the first 3 years of high school. This is the perfect time to teach them to identify invalid inference and to debate the merits of an argument. As she reminds us, children are “born casuists” and can be taught to appreciate a “well-turned argument.”

Students with a strong foundation at the Grammar and Dialectic levels branch into new areas of discovery at the Rhetoric level. Here their studies “will tend to show them that all knowledge is one.” They have an opportunity to explore how all areas of learning are integrated. They discover that there is absolute truth or there is nothing, and it is impossible to be a nihilist and be well-educated.

I believe that the approach of classical education works because it insists that absolutes exist. There are some universal points of reference. This means that there are starting points for the learner that are solid, grounded in reality. This educational approach does not produce "snowflakes" who cannot tolerate controversy and need trigger warnings. It does influence young people to think, to investigate, to recognize fallacies and distinctions, and to continue learning after they have left the halls of academia.

Related reading: The Lost Tools of Learning by Dorothy Sayers; Pragmatism and American Education; Why I Love Philosophy

Wednesday, November 15, 2017

Thomas Hobbes, a Brilliant Pessimist

THOMAS HOBBES (1588-1679)

Thomas Hobbes's materialist philosophy is expressed in his most famous book The Leviathan (1651). Here we read, "The universe is corporeal; all that is real is material, and what is not material is not real."

Our knowledge comes from our senses and since the sense can be fooled, even this must be questioned. He rejects Descartes' mind-matter dualism, but he agrees with Descartes that the human mind can analyse experience and achieve a rational and scientific knowledge.

Despite his "indestructible cheerfulness" (Quinton), Hobbes' materialist philosophy eschews metaphysical grounds for hope. He does not believe in a personal God or that the Creator has established natural boundaries by which the ruler and the wise might discern justice and morality. His pessimism about human nature likely resulted from childhood experiences. His father was the vicar of a local parish, and in the wake of a scandal precipitated by brawling outside his church, the disgraced vicar disappeared. Hobbes and his two siblings were taken to live with their paternal uncle, a tradesman and alderman, who provided for Hobbes' education.

An excellent student of classical languages by age 14, Hobbes went to study at Magdalen Hall in Oxford. He left Oxford in 1608 and became the private tutor for William Cavendish, the eldest son of Lord Cavendish of Hardwick (known later as the first Earl of Devonshire).

In 1610, Hobbes traveled with William to France, Italy and Germany, where he met other leading scholars of the day, such as Francis Bacon and Ben Jonson. There is no doubt that Hobbes had a brilliant intellect. It is revealed in his development of the social contract theory.

Hobbes often quotes the Bible in his writings. He pays lip service to the idea of God's existence and divine law, but in Anthony Quinton's assessment, he is an atheist. Quinton writes, "Despite occasional polite or cautious references to God he was clearly an atheist." (Bryan Magee, The Great Philosophers, Oxford, p. 106.)

As Martinich pointed out (1995), the term "atheist" was frequently applied to people who believed in God, but not divine providence, or to theists who held beliefs that were inconsistent with the Judeo-Christian conception of God.

At the very least, it can be safely said about Hobbes that he was a pessimist when it came to humans and God alike.

Related reading: Hobbes on the Order of Creation; Did Hobbes Change the Meaning of Justice?

Monday, September 18, 2017

The Timeless Mystery of God

Alice C. Linsley

Joan Violet Robinson said, "Time is a device to prevent everything from happening at once." To this, someone quipped, "Space is a device to prevent everything from happening in Cambridge."

Human existence entails the perception of space and time, but our sense of place is generally more acute than our sense of time. We speak of time as something that "passes" and we yet we have no immediate awareness of its passing. C.S. Lewis wrote of this experience:
"We are so little reconciled to time that we are even astonished at it. 'How he's grown!' we exclaim, 'How time flies!' It's as strange as if a fish were repeatedly surprised at the wetness of water. And that would be strange indeed; unless of course, the fish were destined to become, one day, a land animal." (Reflections on the Psalms. Harcourt, Chapter 12)

Aristotle viewed time as something external which has duration and numerical value. Neo-Platonists instead spoke of time as being continuous, as the soul is eternal and imperishable. This conception is similar to the Platonic ascent of the soul in the Symposium and the Phaedrus.

A man of Platonic sensibilities, C. S. Lewis, wrote:
"There are no ordinary people. You have never talked to a mere mortal. Nations, cultures, arts, civilizations - these are mortal, and their life is to ours as the life of a gnat. But it is immortals whom we joke with, work with, marry, snub, and exploit - immortal horrors or everlasting splendors.” (The Weight of Glory)

In The Myth of the Eternal Return, Mircea Eliade writes that belief in cyclical time was “discernibly present in the earliest pre-Socratic speculations. Anaximander knows that all things are born and return to the apeiron. Empodocles conceives of the alternative supremacy of the two opposing principles philia [love] and neikos [strife] as explaining the eternal creations and destructions of the cosmos…The eternal conflagration is, as we have seen, also accepted by Heraclitus. As to the eternal return – the periodic resumption, by all beings, of their former lives – this is one of the few dogmas of which we know with some certainty that they formed a part of the primitive Pythagoreanism.”

Does the soul have an existence autonomous from time and space? If so, are we to imagine the possibility of transmigration of the soul? Certainly Plato believed this. Or are we to imagine a bodiless soul existing in some non-material state? This is certainly the hope of Hindus and Buddhists. The Christian hopes in bodily resurrection made possible by connection to the Resurrected One, the Messiah, the "first born from the dead." He is the eternal King who grants immortality to those He leads to the Father.

We may reason that that which predates time is not bound by time, and if we do so, we must apply this to the very laws of physics. And if we do that, we must entertain the likelihood that there is a fixed quality to those laws. The Israeli scientist Gerald Schroeder takes this position in his book The Hidden Face of God: Science Reveals the Ultimate Truth. Schroeder writes:
“The further philosophical problem of there having been a beginning arises with the idea that the beginning of our universe marks the beginning of time, space, and matter. Before our universe came into being, there is every scientific indication that time did not exist. Whatever brought the universe into existence must of course predate the universe, which in turn means that whatever brought the universe into existence must predate time. That which predates time is not bound by time. Not inside of time. In other words, it is eternal. If the laws of physics, or at least some aspect of the laws of physics, did the job of creation, those laws by necessity are eternal.” 

The Creator is the eternal and immutable God. We may reason that physical laws reflect the Creator, by the best physicists admit that there are many unsolved mysteries in physics. The mysteries may themselves be reflections of the eternal reality of God.

Related reading: Time and Eternity; Theories of Change and Constancy; The Metaphysics of Time Perception; The Story of Ontology; Better a Philosopher and an OratorGain a Heart of WisdomEighteen Unsolved Mysteries in Physics; Tim Maudlin on Time

Thursday, August 10, 2017

Geometry and Experience according to Albert Einstein

Math has its own indisputable logic. In this sense, it has greater certainty than most sciences.

This is the address given to the Prussian Academy of Sciences by Albert Einstein on January 21, 1921 in Berlin.

Related reading: John Lennox on Nonsense; Blaise Pascal; Using Arab Math to Uncover Authors of Torah